Ancient Sumerian cuneiform tablets show that the Sumerians knew a great deal about our solar system. They had knowledge about the shape of the planets, including the Earth. In A̳n̳c̳i̳e̳n̳t̳ Mesopotamia, the five planets visible to the naked eye were known and studied, along with the Moon, the Sun, the stars and other celestial phenomena. It was the Sumerians who invented the first concepts of astrology and the 12 signs of the zodiac in 1894 BC. Ancient Babylonian Map Just Changed History Tracked Jupiter 1500 Years Ago

Los antiguos babilonios tenían conocimientos astronómicos que se adelantaron 1.400 años a la ciencia contemporánea

In 2015, a historian deciphered a mysterious tr̳a̳p̳e̳zoid from A̳n̳c̳i̳e̳n̳t̳ Babylonian astronomical tablets. After analysis of the tablet, it was concluded that the Babylonian astronomers had calculated the movements of Jupiter. Using an A̳n̳c̳i̳e̳n̳t̳ form of geometric calculation. It should be noted that this is about 1,500 years before we thought Europeans invented this kind of math. The tablet was translated by astroarchaeologist Matthieu Ossendrijver of the Humboldt University of Berlin. After a colleague visiting Vienna, Austria handed him a stack of mid-20th century photographs. That means A̳n̳c̳i̳e̳n̳t̳ Mesopotamian astronomers didn\’t just figure out how to predict Jupiter\’s path more than 1,000 years before the first telescopes existed. But they were also using mathematical techniques that would form the foundation of modern calculus as we know it today.

Tr̳a̳p̳e̳zoid and the calculations of the Babylonians to determine the distance and speed of Celestial objects
Ancient Babylonian astronomers developed many important concepts that are still in use today, including dividing the sky into 360 degrees. They could also predict the positions of the planets using arithmetic. Ossendrijver, translated various Babylonian cuneiform tablets from 350 to 50 BC. C. and discovered the sophisticated calculation of the position of Jupiter.

Mapa antiguo de Júpiter

Advanced astronomy technique and the calculation of Jupiter and the A̳n̳c̳i̳e̳n̳t̳ Babylonian map
The method is based on determining the area of ​​a tr̳a̳p̳e̳zoid below a graph. This technique was previously thought to have been invented at least 1400 years later in 14th-century Oxford. This amazing discovery changes our ideas about how Babylonian astronomers worked and may have influenced Western science.

This is a great find, the tablet is just one of hundreds of tablets that were excavated during the 19th century. Hundreds of anthropologists and archaeologists have been working for more than a hundred years trying to decode them. They are all from around 100 or 200 BC.

The tablet shows that A̳n̳c̳i̳e̳n̳t̳ astronomers used time to calculate the speed and distance of a celestial object. It turns out that the Babylonians were following the path of Jupiter during a specific period of time. They did this by measuring its speed every day and using a very advanced geometrical shortcut that allowed them to measure the planet\’s speed on the first and sixtieth days of the measurements and as a result get the distance it traveled.

By calculating the area inside the tr̳a̳p̳e̳zoid, Babylonian astronomers were able to find where the planet would be in the sky, exploiting the same link between speed and displacement that is taught in introductory calculus classes.

cuneiforme sumeria
Sumerian cuneiform tablets dated to 3000 BC. known as an astronomical calendar where the months of the year were reflected. An

The Babylonians, Sumerians and Mesopotamians already used calendars with months and years 3,000 BC.
This makes it the only geometric method known in Babylonian astronomy. It is also different from Greek astronomy, where shapes were used to represent real dimensions of space and time. But nothing as conceptual as speeds. Scholars at Merton College in Oxford and in Paris during the fourteenth century are usually credited with the same insights into speed and displacement. They even connected it to the tr̳a̳p̳e̳zoidal shape. These ideas were the antecedents of the calculus developed by Newton and Leibniz, but the Babylonians had them long before.

In 2020, Mathieu Ossendrijver published another article explaining the Moon and other planets in A̳n̳c̳i̳e̳n̳t̳ Mesopotamia. Where he stated that since 3000 a. C. onwards, the Mesopotamians used a calendar with months and years. Which indicates that the Moon was studied at that early age. In cuneiform writing, the Sumerian and Akkadian names of the moon god, Nanna/Sin, are attested from 2500 BC. The most common Akkadian names for the five planets, Šiḫṭu (Mercury), Dilbat (Venus), Ṣalbatānu (Mars), White Star (Jupiter), and Kayyāmānu (Saturn). They are first attested in 1800-1000 BC. The Moon, the Sun and the planets were seen as gods or manifestations of gods in those times. Ancient Babylonian Map Just Changed History Tracked Jupiter 1500 Years Ago

The Babylonians were also the pioneers of the forecast method (Goal-Year)
From 1800 B.C. C. onwards, the phenomena of the Moon, the Sun and the planets were studied as signals produced by the gods to communicate with humanity. Between the year 600 a. and 100 AD, Babylonian scholars reported lunar and planetary phenomena in astronomical journals and related texts. Its purpose was to allow predictions of the reported phenomena with period-based methods, the so-called Goal-Year methods.

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